There are basically two types of cucumbers - the pickling varieties and the slicing varieties.
The flesh of cucumbers is a very good source of vitamins A, C, and folic acid. The hard skin is rich in fiber and a variety of minerals including magnesium, silica, molybdenum, and potassium.
Cucumber is an excellent source of silica that contributes to the strength of our connective tissue which holds our body together. Cucumbers are effective when used for various skin problems, including swelling under the eyes and sunburn. They also contain ascorbic and caffeic acids which prevent water retention. This may explain why when applied topically they help swollen eyes, burns, and dermatitis.
Preparation and Storage
How to make fermented pickled cucumbers - http://www.uga.edu/nchfp/how/can_06/dill_pickles.html
For information on how to make a variety of pickles - http://www.uga.edu/nchfp/how/cucumber_pick.html